Monday, October 17, 2016

The Holy Spirit in Historic Dogmatics

Christopher R. J. Holmes, The Holy Spirit, New Studies in Dogmatics (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2015). 219pp. Paperback.

Reviewed by Dr. Ryan McGraw

In the previous century, G. C. Berkouwer wrote a series entitled, Studies in Dogmatics. These books presented Reformed doctrine in conversation with Scripture and recent theological trends. Zondervan’s New Studies in Dogmatics aims to follow Berkouwer’s model, while pressing for the retrieval and incorporation of classic expressions of Christian theology into contemporary discussions (15). Christopher Holmes’ work on the Holy Spirit is the first contribution to this series. His aim in this volume is to establish the being, identity, and activity of the third person in the Trinity (19). His treatment is effective and helpful in many respects, but it also reveals some interesting shifts in recent theology.

The Holy Spirit is an intriguing analysis and synthesis of three of the most significant teachers in church history. The author’s emphasis is primarily on the identity of the Spirit in relation to the Father and the Son within the Trinity. After introducing his doctrine in general, he gleans insights from Augustine, Aquinas, and Barth. This had the advantage of combining ancient, medieval, and modern theology (15). This choice of authors enables Holmes to treat the doctrine of the Spirit in relation to three very different theologians from three dramatically differing contexts.

The disadvantages to this approach lie in the absence of Reformed contributions to the doctrine of the Spirit as well as risking losing a unified doctrinal presentation of his subject. Each section traces the doctrine of the Spirit from the exegetical labors of each figure from the gospel of John and then in light of their doctrinal treatises. Holmes reminds his readers that who the Spirit is in the order of subsistence in relation to the Father and to the Son determines how he works in the world and in believers. In doing so, he also demonstrates effectively that contemplating the glory of the Triune God and placing worship at the heart of the Christian faith should be the highest priorities of every believer.

Holmes’ work includes telling omissions, however. While his analysis of Augustine, Aquinas, and Barth is both learned and penetrating, he includes very little exposition of Scripture beyond his historical analysis of the work of these men on the gospel of John. Coupled with a lack of familiar theological terms and Barth-like vague expressions, the virtual absence of references to Reformed authors in this volume is conspicuous. The result is that while Holmes directs his readers to seek edification through contemplating the glory of the Triune God and worshiping him, few will likely be edified beyond a narrow scholarly audience. This is ironic, particularly since Holmes argues vigorously that God revealed theology for the edification of the church. Some of the analyses, particularly synthesis of Barth and Aquinas, will be difficult even for some academics to follow.

Holmes’ treatment of the Holy Spirit puts a finger on some significant needs in the church today. The church needs to engage critically and constructively with prominent figures in Christian history. The church needs to retrieve older models of theological reflection as well. Yet the church needs the voice of Reformed theology to enter this conversation, and she needs to bridge the gaps between the academic theologian, the pastor, and the people in the pews. This series should prove interesting, but it remains to be seen how effectively it will suit the needs of Christian theology and the church at large.

Monday, October 10, 2016

How to Think and Communicate Better

From Topic to Thesis: A Guide to Theological Research, by Michael Kibbe. Downer's Grove, Il: IVP Academic, 2016, 152pp, $12.00, Paper.

Reviewed by Dr. Ryan McGraw

Theological papers and sermons often share in common the fact that they hover around a topic without a clear aim in view. Both theological students and pastors need to develop the skill to tell people what they are doing, why they are doing it, and how they plan to do it. This easy to read book by Michael Kibbe gives theological students needed help to do just that. It is a must read for theological students and for those seeking to write and to teach more effectively in the church.

Kibbe places theological research on the right footing. He asserts that those doing theological research must confess their unworthiness to know God, trust in the Spirit to help their labors, rest in God’s self-revelation in Christ, and submit to God’s authority (27-28). He also exemplifies focused writing in the flow and structure of his book. He breaks down the task of theological research into finding direction, gathering sources, understanding issues, entering discussion, and establishing a position (43-44). He illustrates his principles helpfully in light of widely differing sample research projects related to the kingdom of God in Mark and the doctrine of divine accommodation in John Calvin (e.g., 50-52). The appendices, which treat a range of research-related issues, are invaluable. This is true particularly of the sections on ten things not to do in writing a theological paper and in his introduction to the indispensable Zotero bibliographic software. He furnishes readers with much needed help to learn how to argue for positions rather than merely present information.

Kibbe overstates his case slightly at one point when he says that we must read the Bible as we do any other book and that one’s view of the divine inspiration of Scripture has no bearing on hermeneutical methods (21). The primary difference that he overlooks is that, unlike human authors, the Lord is aware of every consequence of his words. While it is true that we should read the Bible grammatically and in its context, it is also true that we must piece together theological consequences from Scripture in order to conclude things such as God’s Tri-unity and Christ’s two natures. Such doctrines revealed by God in Scripture as clearly as are express statements in particular texts and they provide the backdrop without which the message of Scripture would unravel. While this principle does not allow for wild private interpretations of Scripture, it also distinguishes the Bible from any other book. While the methods of theological research overlap substantially with other disciplines, theology remains a unique discipline in these respects.


This book is precisely the tool that both seminary professors and students need to make the task of writing papers an exercise in developing a skill instead of completing an assignment. By teaching readers how to research and to write well, Kibbe teaches them how to think and to communicate better. The church needs men in the pulpit who are clear and interesting. While preaching sermons and writing papers are very different tasks, they are not unrelated, since they both require students to make a point clearly and persuasively. This reviewer hopes that this book will be useful to the church by teaching men how to think and to express themselves better in the seminary so that they might communicate more effectively in the pulpit.

Tuesday, September 27, 2016

Unity and Diversity among the "Puritans"

Randall J. Pederson, Unity in Diversity: English Puritans and the Puritan Reformation, 1603-1689, vol. 68, Brill Studies in Church History (Leiden: Brill, 2014). 380pp. Hardcover.

Reviewed by Ryan M. McGraw

“Puritanism” is so difficult to define that some historians have rejected it as a useful category. Randall Pederson has made a fresh attempt at navigating the minefield of defining this often-nebulous term. In doing so, he revives “Puritanism” for historical investigation and paves a way forward for future studies. While it is impossible for the daunting task Pederson has set for himself to be without limitations, he effectively demonstrates his thesis that Puritanism is a necessary term that is here to stay (36, 311). This is an outstanding study that should become a starting point for this subject.

This book is broad in scope, but focused in its aim. Pederson traces unity and diversity within Puritanism by special examination of John Downame, Francis Rous, and Tobias Crisp. Each section sets these authors in their historical contexts and examines unity and diversity within Puritanism in light of their teachings on the doctrine of God and humanity, predestination and assurance, the covenants of works and grace, justification and sanctification, law and gospel, and Christian life and piety. Downame represents the “precisionist” strain within Puritanism, Rous the “mystical” strain, and Crisp the “antinomian” strain. Pederson admirably demonstrates the common Puritan culture shared by such authors, in spite of their nuanced differences. The result is that readers leave with a slightly more focused idea of how to recognize a Puritan if he or she meets one.

However, Pederson’s study makes it somewhat difficult to distinguish Puritanism from Reformed orthodoxy. For instance, his descriptions of Downame (152) and Rous (161) representing the precisionist and mystical strains within Puritanism, respectively, do not distinguish them adequately from one another or from Reformed orthodox theology on the continent. Downame’s theology does not appear to differ much, if at all, from Reformed orthodoxy in general. Likewise, Rous’s “mystical” piety as tethered by Scripture does not appear to this reviewer to differ either from Downame or from continental emphases on union and communion with Christ. This is particularly evident by the translation and endorsement or Rous’ work by the Dutch theologian Jacobus Koelman (161). Crisp is the only author treated that stands out, due to his “antinomian” position regarding the time of justification being prior to conversion (254).

We are still left largely with Pederson’s initial observation that we know instinctively that there is something distinctive about Puritanism (305). Pederson argues in the end that we should understand Puritanism as consisting predominantly of Reformed orthodox theologians, with acceptable diversity within the movement, and radical Puritans on its fringes (287). Perhaps in the final analysis, the primary factor that marked a Puritan was neither his orthodoxy nor his piety, but his desire to reform the church of England in light of both (301).

Greater interaction with continental theology would have strengthened this otherwise excellent study as well. A good example is the absence of continental sources treating theology as a “supernatural light” or gift of the Holy Spirit, which Pederson attaches to Rous as an example of his mysticism (185). However, this position was standard in almost all Reformed theology textbooks at the time. In addition, his treatments of the law and the gospel in relation to each figure lacks theological nuance. Pederson treats the terms as though they related primarily to the grounds on which people should do good works. However, in Reformed theology law and gospel were used in widely differing ways. Law, for instance, could refer to the moral law, the covenant of works, the Old Testament, the Mosaic covenant (as opposed to the new covenant), and several other options. Evidence also suggests that Reformed uses of law and gospel differed from Lutheran ones due to the effects of covenant theology on such terminology. His discussion asks readers to use these terms to assess unity and diversity among Puritan authors before evaluating their meaning in Reformed theology.

History is messy. Its subjects do not always like to fit into the categories that we place them. Pederson’s text is a great achievement. He introduces readers to the daunting literature on the subject and funnels his analysis through the lives and theologies of three previously neglected (313), but important, authors. Though he has not solved the problem of defining Puritanism with scholastic precision, he shows us that this is not necessary. The unity within Puritanism enables us to put its diversity in perspective. Anyone doing serious study on Puritanism should not pass by this text.



This review appeared previously in Calvin Theological Journal. Used with permission.


Thursday, August 11, 2016

The Religious Affections: The Marks of Genuine Christian Faith

By Ian Hamilton

What is a Christian? This is a question the Bible addresses with a number of related answers. A Christian is a "new creation" (2 Cor.5:17), someone born of the Spirit of God (Jn. 3:3-5), a believer in the Lord Jesus Christ (Acts 16:31), a lover of the brethren (Jn. 13:35), someone who worships by the Spirit of God, who glories in Jesus Christ and who puts no confidence in the flesh (Phil.3:2). Much more, of course, could be said. In his treatise, The Religious Affections, Jonathan Edwards seeks to gather together the teaching of the Bible concerning genuine Christian faith and applies himself to describing, or anatomizing, the characteristics of a genuine Christian.

The great truth that Edwards seeks to establish and explain is, that "True religion, in great part, consists in holy affections" (1.236).

The background to Edwards' treatise was the remarkable revivals, or 'awakenings', that had marked New England in particular in the middle years of the 1730's and the early years of the 1740's. Similar revivals had touched parts of Scotland at the same time, most notably in Kilsyth and Cambuslang. Through his correspondence in particular with James Robe (Kilsyth) and William McCulloch (Cambuslang), Edwards was well aware of the dramatic events that so transformed for a time these two small towns on the outskirts of Glasgow.

In a letter to the James Robe, Edwards reveals his biblically sane approach to the dramatic, often physical experiences that marked the revivals in Scotland and New England: "Many among us have been ready to think, that all high raptures are divine; but experience plainly shows, that it is not the degree of rapture and ecstasy (though it should be to the third heavens), but the nature and kind that must determine us in their favour" [Letter to James Robe, 12 May 1743, Works of Jonathan Edwards Volume 16, Letters and Personal Writings (Yale University Press 1998), 109]. Earlier in this letter, Edwards reports to Robe that "There is a great decay of the work of God amongst us, especially as to the awakening and converting influence of the Spirit of God; and the prejudices there are, in a great part of the country, are riveted and inveterate. The people are divided into two parties, those that favor the work and those that are against it, and the distinction has long been growing more and more visible...This is very much owing to imprudent management in the friends of the work, and a corrupt mixture which Satan has found means to introduce, and our manifold sinful errors, by which we have grieved and quenched the Holy Spirit" (16.108-109).

Religious Affections is therefore, in part, Edwards' attempt both to justify the revivals as genuine works of God, but also to subject the revivals to a reasonable and reasoned, biblical critique. Edwards knew well that all that glitters is not necessarily gold.

The Religious Affections was written against a background of controversy initiated in the main by a Boston minister, Charles Chauncy (1705-1787). Chauncy, who later taught universal salvation, was especially aggrieved by and opposed to the often extreme physical effects produced in people awakened to their need of salvation through the preaching of men like Edwards and George Whitefield. He believed Christianity was calm, reasonable, careful and "unenthusiastic". He acknowledged, at least initially, that awakened sinners might experience a measure of spiritual distress. However, what he saw and heard in the 1742 Great Awakening deeply alarmed him: "'Tis scarce imaginable", he wrote, "what excesses and extravagances people were running into, and even encouraged in...(I)n the evening...there is a screaming and shrieking to the greatest degree; and the persons thus affected are generally children, young people, and women'" (quoted in George M Marsden, Jonathan Edwards, A Life (Yale University Press, 2003), 269-270.

Edwards does not dismiss out of hand Chauncy's criticisms of the revivals. He knew there had been experiential excesses. He understood from God's word that religious experiences could be dramatic, ecstatic and spiritual, and yet be false. In every genuine work of God, Satan is active, seeking to discredit, mock and oppose.

In his letter to Robe, Edwards acknowledges "It would have been better for us, if all ministers here had taken care diligently to distinguish such joys and raised affections, as were attended with deep humiliation, brokenness of heart, poverty of spirit, mourning for sin, solemnity of spirit, a trembling reverence towards God, tenderness of spirit, self-jealousy and fear, and great engagedness of heart, after holiness of life, and a readiness to esteem others better than themselves..." (16.109).

Chauncey and the opponents of the revivals may well have been wrong in their fundamental assessment of the "rapture and ecstasy" manifested in them, but Edwards recognized that "raised affections", unaccompanied by reverence, humility and holiness of life, were no true "gracious affections". It doesn't help the cause of the gospel when its friends were noted more for "noisy show" than "walking softly" (16.109).

In the light of the controversy, in Religious Affections, Edwards attempts to anatomize the marks of spurious religious experiences and to highlight the marks of genuine religious experiences. His aim was both theological and pastoral. The church needed to understand the nature of true, God honoring religion, and believers needed to be biblically and experientially grounded in their assurance before God. The priority of the moment was to highlight "the nature and kind" (16.109) of truly authentic, as opposed to spurious, religious experience. The public honor of God depended on it. The nature of true religion required it.

In his introduction, Edwards acknowledges that his treatise will not please everyone, but faithfulness to the cause of truth compels him to expose what has been "bad" in the recent revivals and to highlight what has been "good" (Banner ed. 1.234): "It is a difficult thing to be a hearty zealous friend of what has been good and glorious, in the late extraordinary appearances, and to rejoice much in it; and at the same time to see the evil and pernicious tendency of what has been bad, and earnestly to oppose that. But yet, I am humbly but fully persuaded, we shall never be in the way of truth, nor go on in a way acceptable to God, and tending to the advancement of Christ's kingdom, till we do so" (1.234). Far from being an uncritical apologist for the "late extraordinary appearances", Edwards seeks to apply the "clear and abundant light in the word of God to direct us in this matter" (1.234).

Yet, Edwards is sure that the "bad" in the revivals is the result, not of the revivals themselves: "It is by the mixture of counterfeit religion with true, not discerned and distinguished, that the devil has had his greatest advantage against the cause and kingdom of Christ, all along hitherto. It is by this means, principally, that he has prevailed against all revivings of religion, that ever have been since the first founding of the Christian church" (1.235). Edwards understood the fundamental supernatural character of biblical religion and the unceasing attempts of Satan to oppose and discredit true Christianity. This Chauncy never seemed to understand.

The opening words of the Religious Affections make abundantly plain the momentous nature of the work that Edwards is intent on exploring:

"THERE is no question whatsoever, that is of greater importance to mankind, and what is more concerns every individual person to be well resolved in, than this: What are the distinguishing qualifications of those that are in favour with God, and entitled to his eternal rewards? Or, which comes to the same thing, What is the nature of true religion? And wherein lie the distinguishing notes of that virtue which is acceptable in the sight of God?"  (1.234).

Throughout his treatise, Edwards makes it clear that he is not setting doctrine against experience. He knows that any spiritual experience, however heightened and ecstatic, that is not rooted in the truth of God's word, is false and in no sense the gracious result of the ministry of the Holy Spirit.

What Are Religious Affections?

In appreciating Edwards' exposition we need to understand that by "affections" he does not mean emotions. For Edwards, religious affections are what motivate and determine our actions and the whole course of our life. He distinguishes affections from passions thus: "The affections and passions are frequently spoken of as the same; and yet in the more common use of speech, there is in some respect a difference. Affection is a word, that, in its ordinary signification, seems to be something more extensive than passion, being used for all vigorous lively actings of the will or inclination; but passion for those that are more sudden, and whose effects on the animal spirits are more violent, and the mind being more overpowered, and less in its own command" (1.237). Edwards wants us to understand that true religious affections are more than sudden, overpowering, uncontrollable emotions. Affections are never uncontrolled and always lead to a lifestyle shaped by the chosen desires of the will. The nature of the affection will mean that the lifestyle will be directed and shaped by one of two inclinations: "The exercises... (of the affections) are of two sorts; either, those by which the soul is carried out towards the things in view in approving them; or, those in which the soul opposes the things in view, in disapproving them; and in being displeased with, and averse from, and rejecting them" (1.237).

Religious affections are not unemotional, but neither are they to be equated with emotion as such. To use a word that John Owen uses, Edwards understands true religious affections as having a "relish" in God and the gospel and a distaste for everything and everyone that opposes God and the gospel. A genuine religious affection sees and 'tastes' (Ps.34:8) something of the beauty, excellency and wisdom of Jesus Christ and his gospel and seeks to pattern all of life according to the word and will of God revealed in Holy Scripture.

Edwards main concern, once he has explained what he means by spiritual affections, is to highlight what are not genuine signs, and then what are genuine signs, of godly religious affections. To this end his design is to "contribute my mite" (1.235).

Edwards first highlights twelve marks or features of spiritual experience which, in and of themselves, are no sure indication of the powerful, regenerating, heart and mind transforming ministry of the Holy Spirit.

Showing What are no Certain Signs That Religious Affections are Truly Gracious or That They are Not (2.245)

1.     "It is no sign one way or other, that religious affections are very great, or raised very high" (1.245)
2.     "It is no sign that affections have the nature of true religion, or that they have not, that they have great effects on the body" (1.246)
3.     "It is no sign that affections are truly gracious, or that they are not, that they cause those who have them, to be fluent, fervent, and abundant in talking of religious things" (1.247)
4.     "It is no sign that affections are gracious, or that they are otherwise, that persons did not excite them by their own endeavours" (1.248)
5.     "It is no sign that religious affections are truly holy and spiritual, or that they are not, that they come to the mind in a remarkable manner with texts of Scripture" (1.249)
6.     "It is no evidence that religious affections are saving, or that they are otherwise, that there is an appearance of love in them" (1.250)
7.     "Persons having religious affections of many kinds, accompanying one another, is not sufficient to determine whether they have any gracious affections or no" (1.250)
8.     "Nothing can certainly be determined concerning the nature of the affections, that comforts and joys seem to follow in a certain order" (1.252)
9.     "It is no certain sign that affections have in them the nature of true religion, or that they have not, that they dispose persons to spend much time in religion, and to be zealously engaged in the external duties of worship" (1.255)
10.  Nothing can be certainly known of the nature of religious affections, that they much dispose persons with their mouths to praise and glorify God" (1.255)
11.  "It is no sign that affections are right, or that they are wrong, that they make persons exceeding confident" (1.256).
12.  "Nothing can be certainly concluded concerning the nature of religious affections, that the relations persons give of them, are very affecting" (1.260).

Edwards is not saying that people who exhibit these marks are not true believers. He is saying that these marks 'by themselves' ('being alone') are no true indication of the indwelling presence of God the Holy Spirit.

These twelve affirmations are developed in seventeen, double column pages in the Banner of Truth edition. That Edwards' main concern, however, was to focus on the "affections that are spiritual and gracious" (1.262), is seen in the space he gives to anatomizing those truly gracious and authentic gospel affections. In the space of seventy-four pages, in which he highlights twelve (fourteen sections in the Banner of Truth edition, but sections 12-14 all focus on the one theme of "Christian practice") features of godly, Holy Spirit inspired affections, Edwards highlights the essential character of truly Christian affections. He is seeking to establish, as he reflects on the recent revivals, the birthmarks of authentic revival Christianity. Edwards does not mean that these affections will only be found in times of revival. Revivals are but heightened, often remarkably heightened Spiritual occasions that are the native Spirit-wrought birthright and experience of all believers.

The Distinguishing Signs of Truly Gracious and Holy Affections (1.262)

We can best appreciate Edwards' distinguishing signs of truly authentic religious affections by first highlighting his twelfth and final sign. Everything before leads up to this final decisive sign. The space Edwards devotes to his exposition of 'spiritual fruit bearing' underscores how significant he believed this sign to be. Of the seventy-four pages devoted to "gracious and holy affections", twenty-four pages expound the exercise and fruit of gracious and holy affections "in Christian practice". For Edwards this meant three things for a true Christian:

"1. That his behaviour or practice in the world be universally conformed to, and directed by Christian rules. 2. That he makes a business of such a holy practice above all things; that it be a business which he is chiefly engaged in, and devoted to, and pursues with highest earnestness and diligence: so that he may be said to make this practice of religion eminently his work and business. And 3. That he persists in it to the end of life: so that it may be said, not only to be his business at certain seasons, the business of Sabbath days, or certain extraordinary times, or the business of a month, or a year, or of seven years, or his business under certain circumstances; but the business of his life; it being that business which he perseveres in through all changes, and under all trials, as long as he lives" (1.314).

The business or practice of bearing fruit in the day to day walk of the Christian is for Edwards the culminating sign of the presence of gracious and holy affections. Where this is absent, no gracious and holy affection can be present. "Universal obedience" (1.314) to the word and will of God is the fruit produced in any and every life in which gracious and godly affections are present.

It is hard not to think that Edwards has the strictures of Chauncy and other opponents of the revivals in mind. Not only is Edwards concerned to distance himself, and the revivals, from certain physical and emotional excesses, he is also concerned to make it abundantly clear that "universal obedience" to "Christian rules" (1.314) belongs to the essence of affectional Christianity.We are now able better to appreciate the twelve (fourteen) signs that Edwards maintains are to be found in "affections that are truly spiritual and gracious."

1.    "Affections that are truly spiritual and gracious, arise from those influences and operations on the heart, which are spiritual, supernatural, and divine" (1.264)
2.    "The first objective ground of gracious affections, is the transcendently excellent and amiable nature of divine things, as they are in themselves; and not any conceived relation they bear to self, or self-interest" (1.274).
3.    "Those affections that are truly holy, are primarily founded on the moral excellency of divine things. Or, a love to divine things for the beauty and sweetness of their moral excellency, is the spring of all holy affections" (1.278)
4.    "Gracious affections arise from the mind being enlightened rightly and spiritually to apprehend divine things"(1.281)
5.    "Truly gracious affections are attended with a conviction of the reality and certainty of divine things" (1.288)
6.    "Gracious affections are attended with evangelical humiliation" (1.294)
7.    "Another thing, wherein gracious affections are distinguished from others, is, that they are attended with a change of nature" (1.302)
8.    "Truly gracious affections differ from those that are false and delusive, in that they naturally beget and promote such a spirit of love, meekness, quietness, forgiveness, and mercy, as appeared in Christ" (1.303)
9.    "Gracious affections soften the heart and are attended with a christian tenderness of spirit" (1.307)
10.  "Another thing wherein those affections that are truly gracious and holy, differ from those that are false, is beautiful symmetry and proportion" (1.309)
11.  "Another great and very distinguishing difference is, that the higher gracious affections are raised, the more is a spiritual appetite and longing of soul after spiritual attainments increased: on the contrary, false affections rest satisfied in themselves" (1.312)
12.  "Gracious and holy affections have their exercise and fruit in christian practice" (1.314)
13.  "Christian practice, or holy life, is a manifestation and sign of the sincerity of a professing Christian, to the eye of his neighbours and brethren" (1.321)
14.  "Christian practice is a distinguishing and sure evidence of grace to persons' own consciences" (1.324)

For Edwards, "Practice is the best evidence of a saving belief of the truth" and "the most proper evidence of a true coming to Christ, and accepting of and closing with him" (1.331). Thus he concludes, "I have endeavoured to represent the evidence there is, that christian practice is the chief of all the signs of saving grace" (1.333)

Edwards concludes his treatise with an appeal:

"We should then get into the way of appearing lively in religion, more by being lively in the service of God and our generation, than by the forwardness of our tongues, and making a business of proclaiming on the house-tops the holy and eminent acts and exercises of our own hearts. Then Christians who are intimate friends, would talk together of their experiences and comforts, in a manner better becoming christian humility and modesty, and more to each other's profit; their tongues not running before their hands and feet...Thus the light of professors would so shine before men, that others seeing their good works, would glorify their Father which is in heaven" (1.336).

It is fitting that Edwards' concluding words on religious affections should quote the Lord Jesus Christ's concluding words to his Beatitudes (Matt.5:16). Jesus speaks here of the powerful impact of a grace transformed, gospel obedient life on a fallen, spiritually dark world. It has been said that evangelism is "Christians being Christians in the world" (J.I. Packer). This in no sense denies the importance of concentrated, church-initiated evangelistic endeavors. It does however challenge us to ask ourselves the question, "Does my life evidence me to be a true Christian, a possessor of godly and gracious affections?"

There is much discussion and debate in the church today about how best to commend the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ. There is no doubt the church needs to engage relevantly and thoughtfully with world. We need to start where the world is and not where we would like it to be. But surely the church's greatest need is to live grace transformed and gospel obedient lives that compels the world's attention, no doubt much to its own surprise and disgust.

Edwards' Religious Affections searches our hearts. He paints a biblical picture of genuine Christian Faith and life, and invites us to examine our lives in that light.